Hydrolyzed Rice Protein - FSS Rice Hydrolysate PF
Preserved with Leucidal Liquid
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a cereal grain
derived from wild grasses. At the moment, rice production represents 30% of the
world’s cereal production and sustains 3 billion people daily as a means of
nourishment. Humans have depended on rice as a dietary staple for thousands of
years, however the exact origin of rice is unknown. One theory is that it
originated in an area near the Eastern Himalayan Mountains. Remnants of
cultivated rice have been found in the Yangtze Valley dating back to
approximately 8500 B.C. Although there are over 120,000 different varieties of
rice the three most commonly used varieties are: indica, which is fluffy and
high in amylose, japonica, which is sticky and low in amylose and lastly
javanica, which is slightly sticky with an intermediate level of amylose.
Amylose is a polysaccharide within the rice granule.
Rice was introduced to the United States during the
mid-1700s, and is now cultivated in California, Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas
and Louisiana. Excess grain is exported to Europe and South America.
Bangladesh,Thailand, China, India and Indonesia produce the majority of the
half a billion metric tons of rice that is globally consumed per year.
Rice is comprised of approximately 8% protein.
Protein extracted from rice and other plant sources has quickly become a
popular replacement for animal derived proteins that were once the only protein
sources available to cosmetic chemists. Aside from the benefits of a more
economic renewable resource, the use of rice protein allows formulators to
avoid the stigma associated with the use of animal based products. Rice protein
is comprised of four different sub-units, with the greatest concentration being
glutelin, and then globulin, albumin and prolamin respectively with each
constituent having different solubility in liquids such as diluted acids, salt
solutions, water and alcohol solutions.
Although proteins effectively function as film formers,
moisturizers, emulsifiers and strengtheners, whole proteins are often large
structures with molecular weights in excess of several hundred thousand
kilodaltons. Structures with high molecular weights are often difficult for
chemists to work with due to issues regarding solubility, molecular charge and
pH. Often structures with high molecular weights have poor solubility when
compared with low molecular weight structures. This is due partly to the
increased steric hindrances present in larger molecules, which affect both
charge and conformation. Molecular weight also affects the solubility of a
species at various temperatures as well as its pH. Rendering proteins into
smaller subunits via enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis allows one to retain the
functional properties of the protein while avoiding solubility, pH and
Charge is the characterization of a molecule’s gain
or loss of protons (hydrogen). A gain in protons results in a molecule becoming
positively charged, while a loss results in a negative charge. The charge of a
species also known as the ionic character is affected by the pH of the species.
pH is a scale that quantifies the acidic or basic nature of the substance. If a
compound is added to a system with a significantly different pH, the net charge
of the compound will change and not perform optimally. Usually low molecular
weight compounds are less likely to separate and react poorly in systems with a
sub-optimal pH than higher molecular weight species. pKa is a logarithmic scale
that can be used to determine how a species will react in terms of solubility
at a specific pH. This is useful for predicting the way in which a species will
perform before it is added to the system. Usually the concentration of cations
within a species decreases as the pH increases, and half of the molecules in
the species are said to be negative when the pKa value is equal to the pH
Hydrolyzed proteins are amphoteric molecules with
both a positive and negative charge. At a specific pH, amphoteric structures
have a neutral charge with even ratios of cations and anions. This is known as
the isoelectric point, and it is also the point at which the material is least
soluble if incorporated into a system at that pH.
Using both alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis for
hydrolysate production ensures the production of a randomly sequenced
hydrolysate. This maximizes activity over a broad pH range of 3 to 11 whereas
most hydrolysates are least soluble between the range of 6 and 7, and insoluble
below a pH of 4 and above a pH of 10.
FSS Rice Hydrolysate PF is appropriate for
use in shampoo, conditioner, hair treatments, leave-in products, styling
products and fixatives, body wash, body lotion, skin treatments, cleanser,
toner, facial moisturizer, face treatments, foundation, mascara, lipstick and
eye shadow. It is intended to function as an effective film former, emulsifier
and moisturizer, which makes FSS Rice Hydrolysate PF a multifunctional
component useful in virtually any application.
Suggested Use Levels:
Light Tan to
Storage: Protected from direct
light and humidity at a temperature of 50°-77°F (10°-25°C)
Shelf life: 12 months, properly stored, in sealed container.
This product should be
added to a formulation at the recommended usage rate.